“The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE)” Italian Multicenter Study - Prevalenza e ruolo predittivo della riduzione del filtrato glomerulare stimato (eGFR) sul rischio cardiovascolare nel diabete tipo 2: studio multicentrico italiano

 

Coordinatore e collaboratori

Coordinatore: Giuseppe Pugliese

Segretario scientifico: Giuseppe Penno

Comitato scientifico: Anna Solini, Enzo Bonora, Emanuela Orsi, Roberto Trevisan, Luigi Laviola, Antonio Nicolucci

 

Centri partecipanti

1. Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea, Roma (Centro Coordinatore): Giuseppe Pugliese, Paola Simonelli, Andrea Negro, Laura Salvi, Alessandra Bazuro, Aurora Frasheri.

2. Ospedale Le Molinette, Torino: Paolo Cavallo-Perin, Gabriella Gruden, Bartolomeo Lorenzati. 

3. Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano: Mariella Trovati, Giovanni Anfossi, Franco Cavalot, Massimo Chirio. 

4. Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano: Giampaolo Zerbini, Valentina Martina. 

5. IRCCS “Cà Granda – Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico”, Milano: Emanuela Orsi, Laura Montefusco. 

6. Ospedale San Paolo, Milano: Antonio Pontiroli, Marco Laneri. 

7. Ospedale San Giuseppe, Milano: Maura Arosio, Alessia Dolci. 

8. Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo: Roberto Trevisan, Anna Corsi. 

9. Ospedale Maggiore, Verona: Enzo Bonora, Giacomo Zoppini. 

10. Policlinico Universitario, Padova: Angelo Avogaro, Monica Vedovato, Elisa Pagnin. 

11. Ospedale Cisanello, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa: Giuseppe Penno, Laura Pucci, Daniela Lucchesi, Eleonora Russo, Monia Garofolo. 

12. Ospedale Santa Chiara, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa: Anna Solini. 

13. Ospedale Le Scotte, Siena: Francesco Dotta, Cecilia Fondelli, Laura Nigi. 

14. Policlinico Umberto I, Roma: Susanna Morano, Alessandra Gatti. 

15. Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina: Raffaella Buzzetti. 

16. Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia: Mauro Cignarelli, Olga Lamacchia, Sabina Pinnelli. 

17. Policlinico Universitario, Bari: Francesco Giorgino, Luigi Laviola, Sebastio Perrini. 

18. Policlinico Mater Domini, Catanzaro: Giorgio Sesti, Francesco Andreozzi. 

19. Policlinico Monserrato, Cagliari: Marco Giorgio Baroni, Giuseppina Frau.

 

Finanziamenti

Il progetto è stato finanziato dalla SID con € 125.000 in 3 tranche. 

Ulteriori finanziamenti, pari a € 115.000, sono stati ottenuti da:

  • Takeda: € 22.000;
  • Boehringer: € 22.000;
  • Chiesi: € 20.000;
  • Eli Lilly: € 50.000, di cui manca l’ultima tranche di € 10.000;
  • Fondazione DEM: € 1.000.

 

Abstract

Studi recenti hanno indicato come, nella popolazione non diabetica, la riduzione del filtrato glomerulare (GFR) sia un forte predittore di morbilità e mortalità cardiovascolare, indipendentemente dai fattori di rischio cardiovascolari tradizionali. I soggetti con diabete mellito di tipo 2 sono caratterizzati da un eccesso di morbilità e mortalità cardiovascolare rispetto alla popolazione generale. Quindi dal punto di vista clinico è importante individuare fattori in grado di predire gli eventi cardiovascolari in tali pazienti. Un importante predittore è rappresentato da valori elevati di albumineria; infatti nei pazienti diabetici di tipo 2 macroalbuminurici il rischio individuale di dialisi e relativamente basso, mentre il tasso di mortalità cardiovascolare è elevato. Non è invece noto al momento se la stima del GFR fornisca informazioni aggiuntive nei diabetici e se l’eventuale ruolo predittivo sia indipendente da quello dell’albuminuria. Il presente progetto si propone di stimare, in una coorte multicentrica di 15.000 diabetici, rappresentativa della popolazione diabetica in carico presso le strutture diabetologiche italiane, i seguenti dati:

1. La prevalenza della riduzione del GFR e la sua associazione con l’albuminuria ed i fattori di rischio tradizionali (studio trasversale);

2. Il suo ruolo predittivo indipendente su morbilità e mortalità cardiovascolare in un follow-up di 5 anni (studio longitudinale).

Inoltre, il database potrà essere utilizzato in futuro per studi riguardanti aspetti genetici o fisiopatologici o per studi di intervento, da eseguire su un sottogruppo randomizzato di pazienti, in base a proposte dei singol ricercatori e centri coinvolti. I risultati dello studio saranno oggetto di pubblicazione scientifica a cura del comitato di coordinamento del Gruppo di Studio, in rappresentazione della SID.

 

Stato dello studio

Studio basale: 2007-2008 (completato con l’arruolamento di 15773 pazienti)

Follow-up: 2012-2014 (attualmente in corso)

 

Protocollo

Scopi dello studio

L’indagine si propone di  stimare, in un’ampia coorte clinica multicentrica di soggetti con diabete di tipo 2:

  1. la prevalenza della riduzione dell’eGFR e la sua associazione con i fattori di rischio cardiovascolari noti e con l’albunimuria;
  2. il ruolo predittivo dell’eGFR su morbilità e mortalità cardiovascolare in un follow-up di 5 anni, indipendentemente dai fattori di rischio cardiovascolari noti e dall’albunimuria;
  3. l’incidenza di micro e macroalbuminuria e riduzione del GFR in un follow-up di 5 anni.

Durata dello studio

7 anni (complessiva)


Fasi dello studio

Lo studio si compone di due fasi:

  1. Studio trasversale (al tempo 0);
  2. Studio longitudinale (a 5 anni di distanza).
Pazienti

Lo studio prevede il reclutamento di pazienti diabetici di tipo 2 consecutivamente afferenti ai centri partecipanti distribuiti su tutto il territorio nazionale.


Raccolta dei dati

Il progetto prevede la raccolta, al tempo 0 (studio trasversale) e dopo 5 anni di follow-up (studio longitudinale), di:
Dati anamnestici

  • abitudini di vita (fumo, attività fisica);
  • familiarità (per diabete, dislipidemie, ipertensione e malattie cardiovascolari precoci);
  • diabete e compenso glicemico pregresso (media <4 HbA1c eseguite negli ultimi 2 anni);
  • dislipidemia, ipertensione e relative terapie;
  • trattamento antiaggregante e anticoagulante;  
  • comorbidità (neoplasie, distiroidismi, BPCO, epatopatia cronica, altre malattie renali);
  • eventi cardiovascolari maggiori (infarto miocardico, ictus, ulcera/gangrena/amputazione e rivascolarizzazioni coronarica, carotidea ed arti inferiori) e ricovero per scompenso cardiaco (soltanto nello studio longitudinale);
  • eventuale morte e relative cause (soltanto nello studio longitudinale).

Dati clinici

  • peso, altezza e circonferenza vita (facoltativa);
  • pressione arteriosa sistolica e diastolica.

Dati laboratoristici

  • HbA1c;
  • colesterolo totale e HDL, trigliceridi;
  • creatininemia e albumin excretion rate (AER) o albuminuria e creatininuria su urine spot.      

Dati strumentali

  • fundus oculi.

Ad ogni centro viene data libertà di ricavare le informazioni tramite archivio cartaceo o computerizzato, qualora correntemente aggiornato per tutte le informazioni necessarie allo studio, oppure direttamente tramite l’intervista o l’esame clinico del paziente.
Le indagini di laboratorio e strumentali vengono effettuate nelle diverse strutture diabetologiche. Al fine di garantire la comparabilità dei dati, i risultati dell’HbA1c e dell’albuminuria vengono standardizzati.
Ogni centro deve mantenere traccia nel proprio archivio degli eventi cardiovascolari maggiori (infarto miocardico, ictus, ulcera/gangrena/amputazione e rivascolarizzazioni coronarica, carotidea ed arti inferiori) intercorsi in un periodo di follow-up di 5 anni e della data  di  diagnosi dell’evento.
In caso di decesso, debbono esserne riportate le cause, ricavate dallo SDO o dal certificato di morte.


Inserimento dei dati

I dati vengono raccolti attraverso la compilazione di una scheda su un database online al quale è possibile accedere via internet grazie ad un software installato su un server dedicato. La scheda è dotata di soluzioni informatiche atte a facilitare e guidare l’operatore nella sua compilazione
Il software presenta le seguenti caratteristiche:

  • creazione del sito web;
  • creazione del database nefropatia (scheda raccolta dati);
  • creazione del database dei centri;
  • creazione del database del personale che inserisce i dati per la gestione dei privilegi di accesso;
  • controlli automatici del corretto inserimento dei dati;
  • analisi dei dati su filemaker, da cui è semplice il trasferimento al software per l'analisi statistica.

Il server presenta le seguenti caratteristiche:

  • accessibilità a tutti i centri partecipanti limitatamente ai dati del singolo centro;
  • accessibilità nel complesso (intero database) a tutti i componenti del comitato di coordinamento.

Analisi dei dati

Per ciascun paziente verranno calcolati automaticamente: età (anni); BMI (kg/m2); durata diabete (anni); HbA1c standardizzata (%); HbA1c pregressa media standardizzata (%); circonferenza vita stimata (cm) da BMI in caso di non determinazione; colesterolo LDL e non-HDL (mg/dl); PA media (mmHg); eGFR secondo la formula dello studio MDRD modificata e la formula CKD-EPI (ml/min/1.73 m2); AER stimata (mg/die) da rapporto A/C in caso di raccolta spot; età di morte (anni).
I pz. vengono suddivisi in 3 classi riguardo ai valori di albuminuria:
normoalbuminurici: AER <20 μg/min - ACR <30 μg/mg;
microalbuminurici: AER 20-199 μg/min - ACR 30-299 μg/mg;
macroalbuminurici: AER >200 μg/min - ACR >300 μg/mg;
I pz. vengono suddivisi in 5 classi (la classe 3 viene ulteriormente suddivisa in 2 sottoclassi) riguardo ai livelli di eGFR (formula dello studio MDRD modificata o formula CKD-EPI):
1. >90 ml/min/1,73 m2;
2. 60-89 ml/min/1,73 m2;
3a. 45-59 ml/min/1,73 m2;
3b. 30-44 ml/min/1,73 m2;
4. 15-29 ml/min/1,73 m2;
5. <15 ml/min/1,73 m2.
I pz. vengono definiti normopeso, soprappeso o obesi in base ai livelli di BMI: normopeso = <25 kg/m2; soprappeso = >25 - <30 kg/m2; obesità I grado = >30 - <35 kg/m2; obesità II grado = >35 - <40 kg/m2; obesità III grado = >40 kg/m2.
I pazienti vengono definiti affetti da obesità centrale se circonferenza vita > 102 cm (M) o 88 cm (F).
I pz. vengono definiti dislipidemici se livelli di trigliceridi, colesterolo HDL o colesterolo LDL anormali o in trattamento ipolipemizzante. I livelli di trigliceridi vengono definiti elevati se >150 mg/dl; i livelli di colesterolo HDL vengono definiti ridotti se <40 mg/dl (M) o <50 mg/dl (F); i livelli di colesterolo non-HDL vengono definiti elevati se >130 mg/dl; i livelli di colesterolo LDL vengono definiti elevati se >100 mg/dl.
I pz. vengono definiti ipertesi se livelli pressori >130/80 mmHg o in trattamento ipotensivo.
L’analisi statistica viene eseguita presso l’Istituto Mario Negri Sud dal Dr. Antonio Nicolucci.


Stato di avanzamento dello studio

1. Studio trasversale: completato negli anni 2007-2008 con l’arruolamento di 15.773 pazienti.
2. Studio longitudinale. Completato a dicembre 2014, attualmente sono in corso la verifica dei dati raccolti e la ricerca di informazioni su pazienti mancanti.

 

Link

http://www.renediabete.it/
http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00715481

 

Pubblicazioni

Lista Riace Papers (pubblicati)

Reproducibility of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects. Findings from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Nicolucci A, Penno G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011; 26: 3950-2954.

Scarica Pdf

The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation provides a better definition of cardiovascular burden associated with CKD than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study formula in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Bonora E, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Giorgino F, Cavalot F, Pontiroli AE, Baroni MG, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Penno G.
Atherosclerosis. 2011; 218: 194-199.

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Clinical significance of nonalbuminuric renal impairment in type 2 diabetes.
Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Cignarelli M, Laviola L, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
J Hypertens. 2011; 29: 1802-1809.

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Diverging association of reduced glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with coronary and noncoronary events in patients with type 2 diabetes: the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.
Solini A, Penno G, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Arosio M, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Cignarelli M, Andreozzi F, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 143-149.

Scarica Pdf

High prevalence of advanced retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Fondelli C, Zerbini G, Vedovato M, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Buzzetti R, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Penno G; Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012; 98: 329-337.

Scarica Pdf

Rate and determinants of association between advanced retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.
Penno G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Laviola L, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
Diabetes Care. 2012; 35: 2317-2323.

Scarica Pdf

HbA1c variability as an independent correlate of nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.
Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Morano S, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Laviola L, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Study Group.
Diabetes Care 2013: 36: 2301-2310.

Scarica Pdf

Gender differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors, treatments and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: the RIACE Italian multicentre study.
Penno G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Laviola L, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study, group.
J Intern Med. 2013; 274: 176-191.

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Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.
Penno G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Orsi E, Fondelli C, Zerbini G, Morano S, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013; 12: 98.

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Age, renal dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and antihyperglycemic treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: findings from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events Italian Multicenter Study.
Solini A, Penno G, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Cavalot F, Cignarelli M, Morano S, Ferrannini E, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events Study Group.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013; 61: 1253-1261.

Scarica Pdf

Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Bonora E, Orsi E, Zerbini G, Fondelli C, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Penno G; RIACE Study Group.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014; 13: 59.

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Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Bonora E, Fondelli C, Orsi E, Nicolucci A, Penno G; RIACE Study Group.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014; 24: 815-22.

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Resistant hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes: clinical correlates and association with complications.
Solini A, Zoppini G, Orsi E, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Cavalot F, Lamacchia O, Arosio M, Baroni MG, Penno G, Pugliese G; for the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group.
J Hypertens. 2014; 12: 2401-2410.

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Hypertriglyceridemia Is Independently Associated with Renal, but Not Retinal Complications in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study.
Penno G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Lamacchia O, Pontiroli AE, Arosio M, Orsi E, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5): e0125512. .

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Independent correlates of urinary albumin excretion within the normoalbuminuric range in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
Penno G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Cavalot F, Gruden G, Lamacchia O, Laviola L, Orsi E, Pugliese G; Renal Insufficiency Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Study Group. Acta Diabetol. 2015 Jul 10. [Epub ahead of print]

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Lista Riace Papers (in preparazione)

 



Presentazioni a Congressi

Renal insufficiency

The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicentre study: baseline data.
G. Penno, A. Solini, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, E. Orsi, R. Trevisan, A. Avogaro,
P. Cavallo-Perin, F. Cavalot, M. Cignarelli, F. Giorgino, S. Morano, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
22nd European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Frascati (Rome), 28-30 May, 2009

Complicanze micro e macrovascolari nei pazienti italiani con diabete di tipo 2: risultati basali dello studio RIACE.
A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, C. Fondelli, R. Trevisan, O. Lamacchia, F. Giorgino, A. Gatti, M.G. Baroni, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno, G. Pugliese.
XXIII Congresso Nazionale SID, Padova, 9-12 Giugno 2010

 

L’insufficienza renale normoalbuminurica è la forma più frequente di malattia renale cronica nei diabetici di tipo 2 in Italia.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, A. Avogaro, P. Cavallo-Perin, M. Trovati, M. Cignarelli, L. Laviola, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno.
XXIII Congresso Nazionale SID, Padova, 9-12 Giugno 2010

 

Caratteristiche cliniche della popolazione diabetica di tipo 2 in Italia: risultati basali dello studio RIACE.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, A. Corsi, M. Vedovato, L. Laviola, M. Chirio, R. Buzzetti, M. Laneri, A. Nicolucci, G. Pugliese.
XXIII Congresso Nazionale SID, Padova, 9-12 Giugno 2010

Normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency is the predominant clinical presentation of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, A. Avogaro, M. Trovati, P. Cavallo-Perin, M. Cignarelli, F. Giorgino, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno.
70th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association, Orlando, FL, June 25 – June 29, 2010

Cardiovascular risk factors and micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, C. Fondelli, S. Morano, M. Cignarelli, L. Laviola, F. Cavalot, G. Gruden, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno.
46th Annual EASD Meeting, Stockholm, 20-24 September 2010
Association of normoalbuminuric renal impairment with cardiovascular disease.
G. Penno, A. Solini, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, G. Gruden, F. Cavalot, O. Lamacchia, L. Laviola, S. Morano, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
24th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Lubljana, 19-21 May, 2011
Association of normoalbuminuric renal impairment with cardiovascular disease.
G. Pugliese, G. Penno, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, C. Fondelli, G. Gruden, F. Cavalot, M. Cignarelli, L. Laviola, S. Morano, M. Vedovato, R. Trevisan, A. Nicolucci, A. Solini.
47th Annual EASD Meeting, Lisbon, 12-16 September 2010

Concordance between nephropathy and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes: the RIACE Study.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, G. Gruden, M. Cignarelli, L. Laviola, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno, for the RIACE Study Group.
25th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Dublin, 17-19 May, 2012

 

Age, kidney function, and treatment for type 2 diabetes: the RIACE Study.
A. Solini, G. Penno, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, E. Orsi, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, M.G. Baroni, M. Cignarelli, F. Giorgino, R. Buzzetti, E. Ferrannini, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
25th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Dublin, 17-19 May, 2012

Differenze di genere nel controllo dei fattori di riscvhio cardiovascolare nei pazienti con diabete di tipo 2: lo studio RIACE.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, A.E. Pontiroli, M. Arosio, L. Laviola, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Pugliese.
XXIV Congresso Nazionale SID, Torino, 23-26 maggio 2012

 

Attuale prevalenza e correlati della retinopatia in pazienti con diabete di tipo 2: lo studio RIACE.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, M. Vedovato, G. Gruden, F. Cavalot, M. Cignarelli, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno.
XXIV Congresso Nazionale SID, Torino, 23-26 maggio 2012

 

Età, funzione renale e terapia nel diabete tipo 2: lo studio RIACE.
A. Solini, G. Penno, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, E. Orsi, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, M.G. Baroni, M. Cignarelli, F. Giorgino, R. Buzzetti, E. Ferrannini, G. Pugliese.
XXIV Congresso Nazionale SID, Torino, 23-26 maggio 2012

Rate and determinants of association between retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, G. Gruden, F. Cavalot, L. Laviola, S. Morano, A. Nicolucci, G. Penno.
48th Annual EASD Meeting, Berlin, 1-5 October 2012

Resistant hypertension in subjects with type 2 diabetes: clinical correlates and association with renal, retinal and cardiovascular complications.
A. Solini, G. Penno, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, M. Chirio, M.G. Baroni, and G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
26th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Barcelona, 24-25 May, 2013

 

Reclassification of patients with type 2 diabetes using the alternate system for chronic kidney disease based on both albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, C. Fondelli, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, G. Gruden, O. Lamacchia, L. Laviola, S. Morano, and G. Penno, for the RIACE Study Group.
26th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Barcelona, 24-25 May, 2013

 

Association of hypertriglyceridemia with renal, retinal and cardiovascular complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, A. Veronelli, M. Arosio, R. Buzzetti, S. Morano, and G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
26th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Barcelona, 24-25 May, 2013

Resistant hypertension: clinical correlates and association with complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
A. Solini, G. Penno, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, L. Laviola, S. Morano, and G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
49 EASD Meeting, Barcelona, 2013

 

Association of hypertriglyceridemia with complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, G. Grude, O. Lamacchia, M.G. Baroni, and G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
26th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, Barcelona, 24-25 May, 2013 49 EASD Meeting, Barcelona, 2013

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and association with chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, L. Laviola, S. Morano, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
27th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, London, 16-17 May, 2014

 

Re-evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes using the eight Joint National Committee cut-offs for blood pressure: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
A. Solini, G. Zoppini, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, M. Arosio, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, O. Lamacchia, M.G. Baroni, G. Penno, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
27th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, London, 16-17 May, 2014

 

Determinants of urinary albumin excretion within the normal range in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
G. Pugliese, A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, G. Gruden, M. Cignarelli, G. Penno, for the RIACE Study Group.
27th European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting, London, 16-17 May, 2014


Scarica Pdf
 

RUTH OSTERBY LECTURE 2014
G. Pugliese
Updating the natural history of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes
Updating the natural history of diabetic nephropathy.
Pugliese G.
Acta Diabetol. 2014; 51: 905-915.

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Prevalenza di soggetti con diabete di tipo 2 che raggiungono target personalizzati di HbA1c.
G. Pugliese, E. Bonora, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, L. Laviola, R. Buzzetti, S. Morano, A. Solini, G. Pugliese.
XXV Congresso Nazionale SID, Bologna, 28-31 maggio 2014

 

Determinanti dell’escrezione urinaria di albumina nel range di normalità in pazienti con diabete tipo 2.
G. Penno, A. Solini, E. Bonora, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, G. Gruden, O. Lamacchia, G. Pugliese.
XXV Congresso Nazionale SID, Bologna, 28-31 maggio 2014

 

Rivalutazione dei target pressori in pazienti con diabete di tipo 2 secondo i criteri del Joint National Committee 8.
A. Solini, G. Zoppini, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, M. Arosio, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, O. Lamacchia, M.G. Baroni, G. Penno, G. Pugliese.
XXV Congresso Nazionale SID, Bologna, 28-31 maggio 2014

Achievement of personalized HbA1c targets in patients with type 2 diabetes from the RIACE cohort.
G. Pugliese, E.Bonora, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, L. Laviola, M.G. Baroni, S.Morano, A. Solini, G. Penno, for the RIACE Study Group.
50th Annual EASD Meeting, Vienna, 15-19 september, 2014

 

Re-evaluation of patients with type 2 diabetes from the RIACE cohort using the 8th Joint National Committee cut-offs for blood pressure.
A. Solini, G. Zoppini, C. Fondelli, E. Orsi, M. Arosio, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, O. Lamacchia, R. Buzzetti, G. Penno, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
50th Annual EASD Meeting, Vienna, 15-19 september, 2014

 

Determinants of urinary albumin excretion within the normal range in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.
G. Penno, A. Solini, G. Zoppini, E. Orsi, C. Fondelli, G. Zerbini, R. Trevisan, M. Vedovato, F. Cavalot, G. Gruden, O. Lamacchia, G. Pugliese, for the RIACE Study Group.
50th Annual EASD Meeting, Vienna, 15-19 september, 2014

 

Citazioni

 

Normoalbuminuric diabetic kidney disease in the U.S. population.
Mottl AK, Kwon KS, Mauer M, Mayer-Davis EJ, Hogan SL, Kshirsagar AV.
J Diabetes Complications. 2013; 27: 123-127.

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Thresholds of various glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetes based on prevalence of retinopathy in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
Naoko Mukai, Miho Yasuda, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Jun Hata, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Fumie Ikeda, Masayo Fukuhara, Taeko Hotta, Masafumi Koga, Udai Nakamura, Dongchon Kang, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara
Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2014, 13: 45.

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GFR estimation: from physiology to public health.
Levey AS, Inker LA, Coresh J.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2014; 63: 820-834.

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Sex differences in type 2 diabetes: focus on disease course and outcomes.
Arnetz L, Ekberg NR, Alvarsson M.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014; 7: 409-420.

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HbA1c Variability and the Risk of Renal Status Progression in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.
Cheng D, Fei Y, Liu Y, Li J, Xue Q, Wang X, Wang N.
PLoS One. 2014; 9: e115509.

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Optimal therapy of type 2 diabetes: a controversial challenge.
Dardano A, Penno G, Del Prato S, Miccoli R.
Aging (Albany NY). 2014; 6: 187-206.

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Chronic kidney disease and support provided by home care services: a systematic review.
Aydede SK, Komenda P, Djurdjev O, Levin A.
BMC Nephrol. 2014; 15: 118.

Scarica Pdf

 

Retinopathy and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia.
Bello NA, Pfeffer MA, Skali H, McGill JB, Rossert J, Olson KA, Weinrauch L, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Rossing P, McMurray JJ, Solomon SD.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2014; 2: e000011.

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Cardiovascular risk stratification and management in pre-diabetes.
Færch K, Vistisen D, Johansen NB, Jørgensen ME.
Curr Diab Rep. 2014; 14: 493.

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Assessment of the association between glycemic variability and diabetes-related complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Smith-Palmer J, Brändle M, Trevisan R, Orsini Federici M, Liabat S, Valentine W.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 105: 273-284.

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A justification for less restrictive guidelines on the use of metformin in stable chronic renal failure.
Adam WR, O'Brien RC.
Diabet Med. 2014; 31: 1032-1038.

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Diabetes as risk factor for incident coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts including 858,507 individuals and 28,203 coronary events.
Peters SA, Huxley RR, Woodward M.
Diabetologia. 2014; 57: 1542-1551.

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Letter: a1c variability can predict coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes with mean a1c level greater than 7 (Endocrinol Metab 2013; 28: 125-32, Eun Ju Lee et al.).
Jung HS.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2013 Dec; 28: 346-347.

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Response: a1c variability can predict coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes with mean a1c level greater than 7 (Endocrinol Metab 2013; 28: 125-32, Eun Ju Lee et al.).
Lee EJ, Kim MK.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2013; 28: 348-349.

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Differences in the Cardiometabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes according to Gender and the Presence of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the eControl Study.
Franch-Nadal J, Mata-Cases M, Vinagre I, Patitucci F, Hermosilla E, Casellas A, Bolivar B, Mauricio D.
Int J Endocrinol. 2014; 2014: 131709.

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Diabetic retinopathy and renal function in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.
Zhang H, Wang J, Ying GS, Shen L, Zhang Z.
Int Urol Nephrol. 2014; 46: 1375-1381.

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Is chronic kidney disease associated with diabetic retinopathy in Asian adults?
Sabanayagam C, Foo VH, Ikram MK, Huang H, Lim SC, Lamoureux EL, Tai ES, Wong TY.
J Diabetes. 2014; 6: 556-563.

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Cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with albuminuria and impaired renal function in insulin-treated diabetes.
Doggen K, Nobels F, Scheen AJ, Van Crombrugge P, Van Casteren V, Mathieu C.
J Diabetes Complications. 2013; 27: 370-375.

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The degree of retinopathy is equally predictive for renal and macrovascular outcomes in the ACCORD Trial.
Mottl AK, Pajewski N, Fonseca V, Ismail-Beigi F, Chew E, Ambrosius WT, Greven C, Schubart U, Buse J.
J Diabetes Complications. 2014; 28: 874-879.

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Glycated hemoglobin variability: A potential new risk marker for diabetes complications?
Jia W.
J Diabetes Investig. 2014; 5: 635-636.

Scarica Pdf

 

Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.
Wong CW, Wong TY, Cheng CY, Sabanayagam C.
Kidney Int. 2014; 85: 1290-1302.

 

 

Diabetes as a risk factor for stroke in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts, including 775,385 individuals and 12,539 strokes.
Peters SA, Huxley RR, Woodward M.
Lancet. 2014; 383: 1973-1980.

 

 

Correlates of muscle strength in diabetes: The study on the assessment of determinants of muscle and bone strength abnormalities in diabetes (SAMBA).
Balducci S, Sacchetti M, Orlando G, Salvi L, Pugliese L, Salerno G, D'Errico V, Iacobini C, Conti FG, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G; Study on the Assessment of Determinants of Muscle and Bone Strength Abnormalities in Diabetes SAMBA Investigators.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014; 24: 18-26.

 

 

The ideal blood pressure target to prevent cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a neutral viewpoint.
Frontoni S, Solini A, Fioretto P, Natali A, Zuccalà A, Cosentino F, Penno G; Italian Society of Diabetology (SID)-Study Group on Diabetes, Hypertension and the Kidney.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014; 24: 577-584.

 

 

Vascular endothelial growth factor in anterior chamber liquid patients with diabetic retinopathy, cataract and neovascular glaucoma.
Kuzmin A, Lipatov D, Chistyakov T, Smirnova O, Arbuzova M, Ilin A, Shestakova M, Dedov I.
Ophthalmol Ther. 2013; 2: 41-51.

 

 

Fluctuation between fasting and 2-H postload glucose state is associated with chronic kidney disease in previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c ≥ 7%.
Wang C, Song J, Ma Z, Yang W, Li C, Zhang X, Hou X, Sun Y, Lin P, Liang K, Gong L, Wang M, Liu F, Li W, Yan F, Yang J, Wang L, Tian M, Liu J, Zhao R, Chen L.
PLoS One. 2014; 9: e102941.

 

 

HbA1c variability as an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: a German/Austrian multicenter analysis on 35,891 patients.
Hermann JM, Hammes HP, Rami-Merhar B, Rosenbauer J, Schütt M, Siegel E, Holl RW; DPV Initiative the German BMBF Competence Network Diabetes Mellitus.
PLoS One. 2014; 9: e91137.

 

 

Fluctuation between fasting and 2-H postload glucose state is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in newly diagnosed diabetes patients with HbA1c < 7%.
Hou X, Wang C, Wang S, Yang W, Ma Z, Wang Y, Li C, Li M, Zhang X, Zhao X, Sun Y, Song J, Lin P, Liang K, Gong L, Wang M, Liu F, Li W, Yan F, Yang J, Wang L, Tian M, Liu J, Zhao R, Chen S, Chen L.
PLoS One. 2014; 9: e111173.

 

 

The purinergic 2X7 receptor participates in renal inflammation and injury induced by high-fat diet: possible role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Solini A, Menini S, Rossi C, Ricci C, Santini E, Blasetti Fantauzzi C, Iacobini C, Pugliese G.
J Pathol. 2013; 231: 342-353.

 

 

How are patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease monitored and managed? Insights from the observational OREDIA study.
Penfornis A, Blicklé JF, Fiquet B, Quéré S, Dejager S.
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10: 341-352.

 

 

Managing diabetic patients with moderate or severe renal impairment using DPP-4 inhibitors: focus on vildagliptin.
Russo E, Penno G, Del Prato S.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013; 6: 161-170.

 

 

Angiosome-targeted revascularisation in diabetic foot ulcers.
Serra R, Grande R, Scarcello E, Buffone G, de Franciscis S.
Int Wound J. 2013 Oct 7. doi: 10.1111/iwj.12162.

 

 

Significance of estimating the glomerular filtration rate for the management of hypertension in type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria.
Nishimura M, Kato Y, Tanaka T, Todo R, Tone A, Yamada K, Ootani S, Kawabe Y, Yoshizumi H, Hoshiyama Y.
Hypertens Res. 2013; 36: 705-710.

 

 

Four-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy in a Spanish cohort: the MADIABETES study.
Salinero-Fort MÁ, San Andrés-Rebollo FJ, de Burgos-Lunar C, Arrieta-Blanco FJ, Gómez-Campelo P; MADIABETES Group.
PLoS One. 2013; 8: e76417.

 

 

Association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and objectively measured hearing sensitivity among U.S. adults with diabetes.
Loprinzi PD, Gilham B, Cardinal BJ.
Res Q Exerc Sport. 2014; 85: 390-397.

 

 

Improving quality of care in people with Type 2 diabetes through the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative: a long-term cost-effectiveness analysis.
Giorda CB, Nicolucci A, Pellegrini F, Kristiansen CK, Hunt B, Valentine WJ, Vespasiani G.
Diabet Med. 2014; 31: 615-623.

 

 

Both High and Low HbA1c Predict Incident Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Parry HM, Desmukh H, Levin D, Van Zuydam N, Elder DH, Morris AD, Struthers AD, Palmer CN, Doney AS, Lang CC.
Circ Heart Fail. 2015 Jan 5: CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000920. [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.
Chew BH, Shariff-Ghazali S, Fernandez A.

World J Diabetes. 2014; 5: 796-808

 

 

Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients.
Chew BH, Shariff-Ghazali S, Fernandez A.

World J Diabetes. 2014; 5: 796-808

 

 

Do data in the literature indicate that glycaemic variability is a clinical problem? Glycaemic variability and vascular complications of diabetes.
Cavalot F.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013; 15 Suppl 2: 3-8.

 

 

Evaluating self-management behaviors of diabetic patients in a telehealthcare program: longitudinal study over 18 months.
Chen L, Chuang LM, Chang CH, Wang CS, Wang IC, Chung Y, Peng HY, Chen HC, Hsu YL, Lin YS, Chen HJ, Chang TC, Jiang YD, Lee HC, Tan CT, Chang HL, Lai F.
J Med Internet Res. 2013; 15: e266.

 

 

Impact of chronic kidney disease on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain: PERCEDIME2 study.
Rodriguez-Poncelas A, Coll-De Tuero G, Turrò-Garriga O, Barrot-de la Puente J, Franch-Nadal J, Mundet-Tuduri X; RedGDPS Study Group.
BMC Nephrol. 2014; 15: 150.

 

 

Kidney dysfunction and related cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.
De Cosmo S, Rossi MC, Pellegrini F, Lucisano G, Bacci S, Gentile S, Ceriello A, Russo G, Nicolucci A, Giorda C, Viazzi F, Pontremoli R; AMD-Annals Study Group.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014; 29: 657-662.

 

 

Diabetic kidney disease and the cardiorenal syndrome: old disease, new perspectives.
Jindal A, Garcia-Touza M, Jindal N, Whaley-Connell A, Sowers JR.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013; 42: 789-808.

 

 

Sex disparities in the quality of diabetes care: biological and cultural factors may play a different role for different outcomes: a cross-sectional observational study from the AMD Annals initiative.
Rossi MC, Cristofaro MR, Gentile S, Lucisano G, Manicardi V, Mulas MF, Napoli A, Nicolucci A, Pellegrini F, Suraci C, Giorda C; AMD Annals Study Group.
Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 3162-3168.

 

 

Prioritization of patient-related factors according to renal function in antidiabetic drug selection: the REDIM Project.
de Miguel-Yanes JM, Inglada-Galiana L, Gómez-Huelgas R; Diabetes and Obesity Working Group of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 105: 199-205.

 

 

Diabetes mellitus and kidney disease in the elderly.
Iglesias P, Heras M, Díez JJ.
Nefrologia. 2014; 34: 285-292.

 

 

Comment on Zhang et Al. Second-line agents for glycemic control for type 2 diabetes: are newer agents better? Diabetes Care 2014;37:1338-1345.
Bae J, Curtis BH, Kendall DM, Heine RJ.
Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: e204.

 

 

Diabetes Mellitus, Physical Activity, and Longevity Between the Ages of 70 and 90.
Stessman J, Jacobs JM.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014. doi:10.1111/jgs.12930.

 

 

Lipid and non-lipid cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women with and without coronary heart disease.
Russo GT, Giandalia A, Romeo EL, Marotta M, Alibrandi A, De Francesco C, Horvath KV, Asztalos B, Cucinotta D.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2014; 37: 261-268.

 

 

Personalized management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: reflections from a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.
Raz I, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Buse JB, Inzucchi SE, Home PD, Del Prato S, Ferrannini E, Chan JC, Leiter LA, Leroith D, Defronzo R, Cefalu WT.
Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 1779-1788.

 

 

'Progressive diabetic nephropathy. How useful is microalbuminuria?: contra'.
MacIsaac RJ, Ekinci EI, Jerums G.
Kidney Int. 2014; 86: 50-57.

 

 

Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions.
Ferrannini E, Cushman WC.
Lancet. 2012; 380: 601-610.

 

 

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is associated with renal dysfunction independent of BMI and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Shirakawa J, Togashi Y, Tajima K, Orime K, Kikuchi K, Miyazaki T, Sato K, Kimura M, Goshima Y, Terauchi Y.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012; 97: e9-12.

 

 

Epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease.
Reutens AT.
Med Clin North Am. 2013; 97: 1-18.

 

 

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in Spain: PERCEDIME2 study.
Rodriguez-Poncelas A, Garre-Olmo J, Franch-Nadal J, Diez-Espino J, Mundet-Tuduri X, Barrot-De la Puente J, Coll-de Tuero G; RedGDPS Study Group.
BMC Nephrology. 2013; 14: 46.

 

 

An increase in perfusion pressure and activation of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of hypertension and injury: strain vessels and the cerebrovascular-renal connection.
Tamura K, Maeda A, Uneda K, Wakui H, Dejima T, Mitsuhashi H, Yamaguchi S, Tsurumi-Ikeya Y, Tokita Y, Umemura S.

Hypertens Res. 2012; 35: 972-974

 

 

An increase in perfusion pressure and activation of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of hypertension and injury: strain vessels and the cerebrovascular-renal connection.
Tamura K, Maeda A, Uneda K, Wakui H, Dejima T, Mitsuhashi H, Yamaguchi S, Tsurumi-Ikeya Y, Tokita Y, Umemura S.

Hypertens Res. 2012; 35: 972-974

 

 

Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal or hepatic impairment. A systematic review of the literature.
Giorda CB, Nada E, Tartaglino B.
Endocrine. 2014; 46: 406-419.

 

 

Blood pressure variability: a new target to slow the progression of vascular damage in type 2 diabetes?
Solini A.
J Diabetes Complications. 2014; 28: 117-118.

 

 

Silent diabetic nephropathy.
López-Revuelta K, Galdo PP, Stanescu R, Parejo L, Guerrero C, Pérez-Fernández E.
World J Nephrol. 2014; 3: 6-15.

 

 

Normoalbuminuric renal impairment and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
De Cosmo S, Lamacchia O, Pacilli A, Fariello S, Pinnelli S, Fontana A, Di Mauro L, Cignarelli M, Trischitta V.
Acta Diabetol. 2014; 51: 687-689.

 

 

The changing landscape of diabetic kidney disease: new reflections on phenotype, classification, and disease progression to influence future investigative studies and therapeutic trials.
Ho K, McKnight AJ.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2014; 21: 256-259.

 

 

Kidney lesions in diabetic patients with normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency.
Shimizu M, Furuichi K, Yokoyama H, Toyama T, Iwata Y, Sakai N, Kaneko S, Wada T.
Clin Exp Nephrol. 2014; 18: 305-312.

 

 

The synergistic relationship between estimated GFR and microalbuminuria in predicting long-term progression to ESRD or death in patients with diabetes: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).
Amin AP, Whaley-Connell AT, Li S, Chen SC, McCullough PA, Kosiborod MN; KEEP Investigators.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 61(4 Suppl 2): S12-23.

 

 

Urine haptoglobin levels predict early renal functional decline in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Bhensdadia NM, Hunt KJ, Lopes-Virella MF, Michael Tucker J, Mataria MR, Alge JL, Neely BA, Janech MG, Arthur JM; Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) study group.
Kidney Int. 2013; 83: 1136-1143.

 

 

Non-albuminuric renal disease among subjects with advanced stages of chronic kidney failure related to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Boronat M, García-Cantón C, Quevedo V, Lorenzo DL, López-Ríos L, Batista F, Riaño M, Saavedra P, Checa MD.
Ren Fail. 2014; 36: 166-170.

 

 

The emerging concept of chronic kidney disease without clinical proteinuria in diabetic patients.
Halimi JM.
Diabetes Metab. 2012; 38: 291-297.

 

 

Active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications.
Zhang TT, Jiang JG.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012; 21: 1625-1642.

 

 

Ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-blocking agents does not predict normoalbuminuric renal impairment in a general type 2 diabetes population.
Afghahi H, Miftaraj M, Svensson AM, Hadimeri H, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Eliasson B, Svensson MK; Swedish National Diabetes Register.
J Diabetes Complications. 2013; 27: 229-234.

 

 

Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area.
Coll-de-Tuero G, Mata-Cases M, Rodriguez-Poncelas A, Pepió JM, Roura P, Benito B, Franch-Nadal J, Saez M.
BMC Nephrol. 2012; 13: 87.

 

 

Inconsistency in albuminuria predictors in type 2 diabetes: a comparison between neural network and conditional logistic regression.
Morteza A, Nakhjavani M, Asgarani F, Carvalho FL, Karimi R, Esteghamati A.
Transl Res. 2013; 161: 397-405.

 

 

Gender difference in albuminuria and ischemic heart disease in type 2 diabetes.
Nakhjavani M, Morteza A, Jenab Y, Ghaneei A, Esteghamati A, Karimi M, Farokhian A.
Clin Med Res. 2012; 10: 51-56.

 

 

Concomitant renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus as prognostic factors for acute myocardial infarction.
Kim CS, Choi JS, Park JW, Bae EH, Ma SK, Jeong MH, Kim YJ, Cho MC, Kim CJ, Kim SW; Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Investigators.
Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011; 10: 95.

 

 

Microalbuminuria in HIV disease.
Hadigan C, Edwards E, Rosenberg A, Purdy JB, Fleischman E, Howard L, Mican JM, Sampath K, Oyalowo A, Johnson A, Adler A, Rehm C, Smith M, Lai L, Kopp JB.
Am J Nephrol. 2013; 37: 443-451.

 

 

Cardiac autonomic neuropathy predicts renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study.
Tahrani AA, Dubb K, Raymond NT, Begum S, Altaf QA, Sadiqi H, Piya MK, Stevens MJ.
Diabetologia. 2014; 57: 1249-1256.

 

 

Albuminuria prevalence in first morning void compared with previous random urine from adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010.
Saydah SH, Pavkov ME, Zhang C, Lacher DA, Eberhardt MS, Burrows NR, Narva AS, Eggers PW, Williams DE.
Clin Chem. 2013; 59: 675-683.

 

 

Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetic nephropathy: a cohort study.
Tahrani AA, Ali A, Raymond NT, Begum S, Dubb K, Altaf QA, Piya MK, Barnett AH, Stevens MJ.
Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: 3718-3725.

 

 

Vitamin D and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities brain magnetic resonance imaging study.
Michos ED, Carson KA, Schneider AL, Lutsey PL, Xing L, Sharrett AR, Alonso A, Coker LH, Gross M, Post W, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF.
JAMA Neurol. 2014; 71: 863-871.

 

 

Vitamin D and cognitive function and dementia risk in a biracial cohort: the ARIC Brain MRI Study.
Schneider AL, Lutsey PL, Alonso A, Gottesman RF, Sharrett AR, Carson KA, Gross M, Post WS, Knopman DS, Mosley TH, Michos ED.
Eur J Neurol. 2014; 21: 1211-1218, e69-70.

 

 

Comparison of two creatinine-based estimating equations in predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Comparative performance of four equations estimating glomerular filtration rate in adult Chinese diabetics.
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Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate in scleroderma patients.
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